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1. it's got very noble roots.

P4C was the brain child of Matthew Lipman, an American educational philosopher who wanted to design an innovative method for enhancing children's capacity to think critically, creatively and compassionately. In the early 1970s, he and his partner Ann Margaret Sharp started writing philosophical novels about kids exploring the meaning of their lives, adapting the learning-by-doing ideas of John Dewey and Charles Sanders Peirce. With these books, he and his team helped kids connect to their philosophical spirit, resulting in an innovative curriculum for all ages, from kindergarten through high school.

2. it's all about community.

With P4C, young people bond over questions they find intriguing and contestable, becoming a Community of Philosophical Inquiry (CPI) committed to the pursuit of meaning, truth and value. As a group, they explore complex issues that resonate with them, discuss possible answers together and discover the diversity of human experience. Through dialogue, they learn to be comfortable with uncertainty, listen attentively, resist their own biases, steer clear of stereotypes and appreciate each other's perspectives. The motto? Many heads and hearts are stronger than one!

3. it's the kids who come first.

In a P4C community, young people take the reins: they are the ones to identify the dialogue topics, generate their own questions, exchange among themselves, come up with reasonable positions, evaluate their progress, and grow through cooperation rather than competition. This is called "child-centred learning" because the adult in the circle is not the leading expert but the helpful facilitator of a kid-driven experience, equally interested in the inquiry and dedicated to providing a safe, stimulating context to think things out.

4. it's practiced all over the world.

Since its beginnings, P4C has inspired educators around the globe and is practiced in dozens of countries as an education-for-wisdom model. UNESCO has celebrated and endorsed the P4C model's capacity to promote democracy and peace by helping young people understand and embody good global citizenship. The P4C movement grew out of the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) and is now also represented internationally  by the International Council for Philosophical Inquiry with Children (ICPIC). Here in Canada, P4C is on the rise, with excellent programs in Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia.

5. it's just plain FUN!

P4C is like a big mental playground where kids can toy with ideas and delight in thinking outside the box with their friends. At Brila, we use a ton of innovative forms to spark great conversations about meaningful ideas, then with our new found inspiration, we delve into creative projects that expand on the participants' favourite philosophical themes, and showcase them through our youth zines. Thanks to P4C, Brila's participants not only build reasoning skills, empathy and creativity, they also leave feeling good about what they have accomplished as a community of imaginative, transformative thinkers.

The P4C pedagogical method is called "Community of Philosophical Inquiry" (CPI) since it describes a group of individuals joined together by a fascinating question that they find worthy of examination through collaborative philosophical dialogue. The aim of the CPI method is to cultivate multidimensional thought, or thinking that is at once critical, creative and caring.

Children develop these thinking skills by practicing self-correction, which involves recognizing errors in their reasoning, accepting criticism, rectifying mistakes, modifying viewpoints in light of new evidence and changing their minds when reasonable to do so. The CPI method is rooted in the assumption that philosophy is the best way of making meaning out of life experiences so should play an important role in children's education.

1. the stimulus

A community of philosophical inquiry session starts with a stimulus that provokes wonder, like a story, art work, video or game, full of conceptual and contestable dimensions about life's possible meanings.

2. the question

The community then responds to the stimulus by generating a list of intriguing philosophical questions based on what puzzled, bothered or  enthralled them, and chooses one to explore during their dialogue.


3. the dialogue

Next comes the heart of the inquiry: the community discusses their question together, trying to define key concepts, form reasonable positions, illustrate them with examples and imagine their  implications.

4. the assessment

After the dialogue, the community reflects on their collaborative thinking to determine what they achieved and how they can improve—a practice called metacognition, or thinking about thought processes.


5. the project

Finally, the community comes up with an activity to test their position in the real world to see whether it really reflects how they experience life or whether it needs to be fine-tuned. And so the inquiry cycle continues!


Order copies of Pixie, Elfie, Kio & Gus, Nous, Harry, Lisa, Mark and Suki on the IAPC website.

Brila is proud to be part of the vibrant P4C movement within North America and around the world:

























Victorian Association for Philosophy in Schools


Cross-border associations






North America




some philosophical questions from our youth participants...

Philosophy for Kids: Sparking a Love of Learning

TEDx Talk with Dr. Sara Goering, PLATO (Philosophy Learning and Teaching Organization)

What Is Philosophy for?

The School of Life

Institute for the

Advancement of

Philosophy for Children

Teaching Philosophy for Children

Dr. Maughn Gregory on Why? Radio

Philosophical Children

Documentary, University of Washington

Philosophy Is a Right

TEDx Talk with Dr. Charlotte Blease

Big Ideas for Little Kids

Documentary with Dr. Thomas Wartenberg

There are a ton of fantastic books on the theory and practice of doing philosophy with children. Here are some of our favourites.


Click on the covers to purchase the books online.

ONLINE RESOURCE BANK is a co-operative that provides an online library of over 400 resources on doing philosophy for children, including activities, games and lesson plans.

By subscription though free samples are available.

Scholars and practitioners of philosophy for children publish their theory, empirical research and best practices in a variety of philosophy and education journals but these particular publications focus on P4C specifically:

Increasingly more P4C practitioners and organizations are taking to Twitter to share stories and tools. Here are some feeds to follow for tips, tricks and inspiration, or look up #P4C directly on Twitter.


Click on the handles to access the Twitter feeds online.






























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RPO Plateau Mont-Royal

Montreal QC H2H 2S8


Brila is a registered charity (#82689 1251 RR0001) and non-for-profit organization under the Canada Revenue Agency. Our organization is nonpartisan and will not advocate any particular religious, political or moral views. The views expressed in Brila's digital magazines are strictly those of our participants and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the organization and our staff. Our online digests are sent through our mailing list only a half dozen times per year—we vow not to clog your inbox. All the photos on this website are of our participants—no stock images here! The contents of this site should not be reproduced, captured or otherwise used without our expressed permission.



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